The recent developments in imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) helped produce high-quality and high-resolution retinal images. This progress revealed some parameters called biomarkers, which are helpful clinical decision-making indicators. This review aims to highlight valuable OCT biomarkers related to common macular diseases. Besides the most frequent disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, also retinal vein occlusion and epiretinal membrane were evaluated in the current article. The mentioned markers can help determine prognosis, assess treatment response, and even predict surgical success; however, there is a need for wider and prospective studies. It is essential to evaluate biomarkers together with multimodal imaging and the clinical characteristics of the patients.Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, biomarker; diabetic retinopathy; epiretinal membrane; macular diseases; optical coherence tomography; retinal vein occlusion.